The number of residents in London who were originally
The number of residents in London who were originally from the 21 endemic countries in Central and South America was calculated from the 2011 UK National Census and was stratified by borough. We did not include undocumented migrants and individuals born to mothers from endemic Latin American countries.
To calculate the expected number of people infected with , the number of migrants from each country of origin was multiplied by that country\'s specific Chagas disease prevalence among migrants living in Europe, as estimated in a meta-analysis. For endemic Latin American countries without data in the meta-analysis, the prevalence was obtained from a report based on 2010 estimates of Chagas disease in Latin America. The minimum and maximum prevalence estimates for countries in the meta-analysis were derived from the 95% CIs. Finally, the total expected number of cases was divided by the total Latin American purchase CP-673451 living in each London borough.
Birth registration is the first legal recognition of a child and a fundamental human right. Worldwide, nearly 230 million children younger than 5 years do not have a birth certificate, rendering them invisible to the state. Indonesia is one of the countries plagued by this so-called scandal of invisibility, with more than 24 million Indonesian children remaining undocumented. This number is concerning, given existing evidence linking a lack of birth registration to increased school drop-out, child trafficking and labour, and reduced access to health, social services, and education. Furthermore, effective civil registration and vital statistics (CRVS) systems are vital to inform and monitor health policy and programming and will be central to tracking progress towards the Sustainable Development Goals.
Ethiopia\'s successes and ambitions, highlighted in \'s January Editorial, are threatened by the present drought, a result of failed seasonal rains worsened by El Niño. Drought resulting in poor agricultural yields is already having a highly destructive effect on the health of more than 10 million people in Ethiopia, including 1·7 million children, and pregnant and lactating women. Since August, 2015, severe acute malnutrition in children is on the rise, comparable in its effects with the Horn of Africa drought in 2011. Malnutrition, wasting, or kwashiorkor, in children causes weight loss and stunting as a result of prolonged food deprivation. Such problems not only threaten child survival, but can also have a lifelong effect on cognitive ability, mental functioning, and the ability to cope with infection. Moreover, stunting in women predicts cephalopelvic disproportion and difficult childbirths, which increase rates of operative delivery and maternal and neonatal mortality. That only 16% of Ethiopian mothers are assisted by skilled birth attendants might exacerbate this danger. The country\'s Health Sector Transformation Plan (HSTP) aims to improve access to health care, including bringing about a reduction in neonatal mortality to 20 per 1000 livebirths by 2020. There is a need for ongoing investment in neonatal health in the country for this HSTP goal to be achieved, including effective preventive measures, such as supplementary food and targeted cash transfers for the most vulnerable households, in addition to the proposed transformation of health services at district level. At least in the short term, Ethiopia has called for international support and immediate food assistance, to ensure that the country\'s development gains of the past decade are preserved and to allow progress in population health outcomes to continue.
A global health partnership between countries is now an international priority. Infectious disease transcends borders, cultures, and demographics, leaving long-term devastating effects. Antimicrobial resistance is now widely recognised as a major threat to global health security. Infections caused by resistant bacteria can be endemic, or can occur as an epidemic. Bacteria that have evolved to become resistant to existing drugs can lead to life-threatening infections with few or no treatment options. They can spread rapidly around health-care facilities, move across borders, and jump continents. Although warnings about antimicrobial resistance were first raised more than 50 years ago, the problem has escalated into a global crisis. WHO and the Global Health Security Agenda (GHSA) have prioritised combating antibiotic resistant bacteria on a global level. A recent important development is the endorsement of a global action plan for antimicrobial resistance at the 69th World Health Assembly in May, 2015. Global surveillance is one of the core pillars of this action plan because without such surveillance we cannot even begin to understand the extent of the problem, its geographical reach, or the effect on our populations, health-care systems, and economies.