The most important cytotoxic lesion formed by the nitrogen
The most important cytotoxic lesion formed by the nitrogen mustards is generally considered to be the DNA–DNA interstrand cross-link 12, 13. DNA–DNA interstrand cross-links are thought to exert their cytotoxic effects by inhibiting DNA duplex strand separation, progression of the Trehalose mg fork and DNA transcription 14, 15, and hence the relationship between DNA–DNA interstrand cross-links and the activity of ZD2767D was studied.
In the 60 cell line panel used in the National Cancer Institute (NCI) drug screening programme, cell lines containing mutated TP53 are less sensitive overall to the majority of clinical anti-cancer agents, including the alkylating agents . To investigate the impact of TP53 function on the sensitivity to ZD2767P+CPG2, ZD2767P and chlorambucil, human colorectal and NSCLC cell lines with defined TP53 status were used. In addition, matched HCT116 human colon cancer cell lines with wild-type TP53 (HCT116) and disrupted TP53 function (due to transfection with the human papillomavirus type-16 E6 gene — HCT116-N7 cells) were investigated.
Materials and methods
Discussion The aim of the studies described in this paper was to identify determinants of the sensitivity of human colorectal cancer and NSCLC cell lines to the ZD2767 ADEPT system. In particular, the role of DNA–DNA interstrand cross-linking and TP53 status were studied. Comparison of the activity of ZD2767P+CPG2, ZD2767P and chlorambucil, in the colorectal cell line panel, demonstrated that ZD2767P and chlorambucil were markedly less active (>64-fold and >97-fold, respectively) than ZD2767P+CPG2. The difference in activity between the ZD2767P and ZD2767D is attributed to the presence of the glutamate moiety, which both reduces the reactivity of the mustard group (5–10-fold, AstraZeneca Pharmaceuticals unpublished observation) and introduces two negative charges on the molecule at physiological pH, thereby impeding uptake into the cell. The differential potency of ZD2767P and ZD2767P+CPG2 has been previously described in Refs. 4, 5, and is of a magnitude that satisfies the criteria required for a potential ADEPT system . Despite the greater potency of ZD2767P+CPG2, there was a similar overall rank order of sensitivity to ZD2767P+CPG2, ZD2767P and chlorambucil in the colorectal cell line panel, suggesting that all three compounds share common determinants of sensitivity, which could include a similar final cytotoxic lesion. The cytotoxicity of nitrogen mustards such as chlorambucil and melphalan is generally attributed to their ability to produce bifunctional DNA adducts, in particular interstrand cross-links 12, 13, 22. The monofunctional ZD2767D analogue was not as potent as ZD2767P+CPG2, with the HT29, LoVo and LS174T cell lines being 46-, 44- and 450-fold less sensitive, respectively. Similar reductions in potency have also been previously reported between mechlorethamine (HN2) and 2 monofunctional analogues , and between sulphur mustard gas and its corresponding half mustard . Exposure of HT29 and LS174T cells for 1 h to ZD2767P+CPG2 resulted in a ZD2767P concentration-related increase in the formation of DNA interstrand cross-links, an observation which has also been reported with HN2, melphalan, chlorambucil and 4-[bis(chloroethyl)amino] benzoic acid (BAM) 13, 25, 26. Similar levels of DNA–DNA interstrand cross-link formation were observed at equitoxic concentrations of ZD2767P+CPG2 in the HT29 and LS174T cell lines, suggesting a semi-quantitative relationship, and Sunters and co workers  have demonstrated that the formation of DNA–DNA interstrand cross-links by chlorambucil, melphalan and BAM is related to biological activity in K562 leukaemia cells. Similarly, Gornati and colleagues  have demonstrated similar levels of DNA–DNA interstrand cross-links in OAW42 (melphalan-sensitive) and OAW42MER (melphalan-resistant) ovarian cancer cells following treatment with equitoxic melphalan concentrations.